From the bottom up:
Hive stand- Holds the hive above the ground to avoid moisture from rain, improve ventilation and minimize intruders such as other insects.
Bottom board- Contains the bottom of the hive. It has an insert to control ventilation, a screen
Entrance Reducer- Used to allow the bees better control of the access to the hive, to keep out intruders
Frames- Each body contains individual frames. Frames contain a foundation which are thin pieces of wax or plastic. These have imprinted with tiny hexagon figures to allow a base for the bees to build the wax cones.
Brood Body- hive bodies come in three sizes, Deep, Medium and Shallow. The brood body is usually a deep body. It is filled with 8 or 10 frames. The bees build their combs of wax. The queen lays eggs in the combs. Worker bees take care of the incubating eggs until they mature. Bees will also make and deposit honey in the Brood Body. Usually there are one or two brood bodies depending on the size of your colony.
Queen Excluder- It is not shown on the diagram but on top of the brood body a queen excluder is placed. This keeps the Queen in the broad body allowing worker bees to migrate to the upper bodies. It allows the upper bodies to contain honey free of eggs and bee larvae.
Upper Bodies (or Supers)- In these boxes bees will store honey. At harvest time the frames of these bodies are removed and honey is extracted from them.
Inner cover- contains the top of the hive but has a wide hole to allow for ventilation
Roof- Provides protection from the elements